Graphite is an allotrope of the chemical element carbon and is denoted with the aid of the image ‘C’. Natural graphite happens in 3 distinct paperwork in nature – crystalline, amorphous, and lump graphite. The international locations exporting this detail are China, India, Brazil, North Korea, and Canada.
Lump graphite, also called vein, is discovered all around the world, however commercially mined handiest in Sri Lanka. This element is grayish black to metal gray in color and can mark impressions on the substrate. Because of these marking belongings possessed via graphite, it’s miles used in the manufacture of pencils and gets its call from the Greek phrase ‘graphene’, which means ‘to jot down’. Its bodily and chemical residences make it a unique chemical substance.
Following are a number of the properties of this compound based totally on its shape and prevalence in nature.
The mineral graphite is metallic gray to black in coloration and is odorless. It is opaque and has a sub-steel luster. It is thought to have a totally tender and greasy texture. It may be broken without difficulty and leaves a black streak on the hand while touched. Although graphite is smooth and flexible, it isn’t elastic in nature.
This element is crystalline in nature; however, best crystals of graphite are not often discovered. The carbon atoms in its shape are organized in a hexagonal manner in a planar, condensed ring system. This gives the graphite crystals a hexagonal form. Different layers of this detail are stacked together and held by means of susceptible covalent forces to form a giant covalent shape.
Graphite has a high melting factor above 3000ºF, similar to that of diamond―the alternative allotrope of carbon. Hence, it’s miles stable over a wide variety of temperatures.
As there is lots of vacant space between the graphite sheets held by using the weak covalent bonds, and the density of graphite is 2.09 to two.33 g/cc, which is lower than that of the diamond. The measured specific gravity of this element is about 2.26 g/cc. However, it depends upon the purity of graphite. Graphite with a higher ash content material suggests a particular gravity better than 2.26, even as its herbal shape has a lower specific gravity or density due to the trapped porosity.
Graphite is insoluble in water in addition to other organic solvents. There are not any attractive forces that occur among the solvent molecules and the carbons atoms in its shape, and consequently, it fails to dissolve in any of the organic solvents.
There is a considerable delocalization of electrons inside the carbon layers of graphite. The delocalized electrons are loose to move and are capable of conduct strength, hence, making graphite a terrific conductor of strength.
➤ Graphite is chemically inert to nearly all chemical compounds.
➤ It burns absolutely whilst heated in oxygen to form carbon dioxide. However, it fails to burn in air, although it is heated to high temperatures.
➤ When heated in the presence of focused sulfuric acid and potassium dichromate, graphite gets oxidized to carbon dioxide.
➤ Due to its chemical inertness and balance at excessive temperatures, it’s miles widely used as a refractory cloth.